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Epigraph Volume 9 Issue 1, Winter 2007

 

From The Information Officer

Welcome to the latest edition of Epigraph, the newsletter of the International League Against Epilepsy. The first article of this issue is a fascinating and scholarly exposition by Dr Louisa Rocha about Pedro de Horta, a pioneering physician who moved to Mexico in the middle of the XIIIth Century and who wrote on the subject of epilepsy. This is an account of an extraordinary man and extraordinary events, and I am grateful to Dr Rocha for sending this to Epigraph.

I also highlight the new online bibliography which is now available on the ILAE Website (www.ilae.org). This online database consists of epilepsy books compiled by Dr Yukio Fukuyama from Tokyo. All those who know Dr Fukuyama’s work will appreciate his kindness in allowing this to be featured on the Website in a database format that can be searched and updated. It seems to me that this is exactly the sort of information that should be available via the ILAE Website and it is a pleasure to draw attention to it.

Another article here concerns the antiepileptic drug database which is a new entry on the ILAE Website. This is a comprehensive database of antiepileptic drug availability (names and brands) in different countries of the world. It has been drawn up by Bob Fisher and is a superb and useful piece of work.

I also would like to mention the announcement in this issue from Eurepa about a new series of ILAE-initiated summer schools in the Baltic region, which are part of the new educational agenda of the ILAE. These should be excellent events and hopefully their progress will be the subject of future reports in Epigraph. Other ILAE activities mentioned in this newsletter include conferences and prizes and show the extent and quality of ILAE activities. It is indeed a dynamic and evolving organisation.

Epigraph has been published since 1994 and I am stepping down from its editorship to concentrate more on the larger and more difficult task of editing Epilepsia. The next online issue will be edited by the new ILAE Information Officer (soon to be appointed by ILAE President, Peter Wolf). I would like to pass my best wishes on to the new editor and look forward to an improved and expanded newsletter. In recent years, my editorship has been supported by Mr Christer Osterling, Website Project Manager, at the ILAE headquarters in Hartford. Christer has done outstanding service and has overseen all the recent improvements and innovations in Epigraph and the Website. I would like to record my personal thanks to Christer here for his sterling work, and to the many others in the ILAE worldwide who have assisted me in ILAE Information Officer work during my tenure.

Simon Shorvon
ILAE Information Officer and Editor of Epigraph

Pedro de Horta and The Medical-Moral Account on Epilepsy:
The First Treatise of Epilepsy in Latin America
Figure 1. First page of “The Medical-Moral Account of the Most Troublesome and Rigorous Illness of Epilepsy” written by Pedro de Horta

Dr Rocha has kindly written the following account of the first Latin American  treatise on epilepsy for Epigraph. This was completed in 1611 by Pedtro de Horta and provides a vivid insight into contemporary understanding of and attitudes about epilepsy.

Pedro de Horta was a Spanish physician who moved to Mexico at the middle of 18th century. He got the license to practice medicine by “Real Tribunal Protomedicato” of the New Spain. He was the physician-in chief of the “Hospital Real del Señor San Pedro” and of the “Convento de Señoras Religiosas Capuchinas” in Puebla. Pedro de Horta supported his theories on ideas of modern authors such as Hemann Boerhaave (1668-1738), a Dutch humanist and physician of European fame, considered the founder of the clinical teaching and of the modern academic hospital. Before Pedro de Horta, the description of epilepsy appeared in important medical Spanish books from the 17th century, such as “Liber Deaffectionibus Puerorum”, a treaty on pediatry written by Francisco Perez-Cascales in 1611, including a chapter dedicated to describe the epilepsy in children. The “Praelectiones Vallisoletanae”, considered the first Spanish treaty about the epilepsy, was written in 1631 by Antonio Ponce de Santa Cruz.

In September 7 of 1754, in Puebla (meaning in nahuatl the place where the water becomes red) town (located at 150 km East to Mexico City), the nun Alexandra Beatriz de los Dolores, prioress of the convent of the religious order of “San Jerónimo”, sent a letter to her confessor Gaspar Antonio Mendez de Zisneros in order to inform him the situation of 15 nuns afflicted by severe convulsions during 1 to 12 years. In such report, the prioress described the signals and symptoms that the nuns underwent during the seizures. The incidence of such illness was higher from 1750 to 1754, a situation that suddenly disappear after the nuns pried for a miracle to Guadalupe Virgin. At the request of prioress Alexandra Beatriz de los Dolores in order to understand the causes of seizures, the first treaty of epilepsy in New Spain was written by Pedro de Horta entitled “Informe Médico Moral de la Penosissima y Rigurosa Enfermedad de la Epilepsia“ (The Medical-Moral Account of the Most Troublesome and Rigorous Illness of Epilepsy), and it was printed in 1763 at the shop of Domingo Fernandez de Arrojo in Madrid.

Figure 2. “Calle del Carmen”, street from Madrid, Spain, where the shop of Domingo Fernandez de Arrojo was located in 1763.

In his Medical-Moral Account, de Horta divided the abnormal movements improperly known as “telele” or “tembeleque”, as follows: a) epilepsy, as “forced, involuntary preternatural, violent, convulsive shaking of the nervous (system)-membranous-muscular parts of the whole body, with loss of consciousness”; b) convulsive movements as “spasmodic wandering movements continuously changing their location in the body, not associated with loss of consciousness, which are originated in the nervous membranes around the joints and secondarily propagated to meninges of the brain and spinal cord”; c) seldom spasmodic movements, as “muscular contractions specially of limbs, not associated with loss of consciousness that are induced by irritation of meninges of spinal cord and nerves”. Epilepsy was also classified as hereditary or nonhereditary, accidental, idiopathic and sympathetic.

The causes of epilepsy were divided into immediate and remote. The immediate causes of epilepsy were disturbances of the body functions. They were classified as follows: a) hereditary nature; b) congenital disposition, c) damage of the brain and its membranes by factors such as tumors, cartilaginous changes of the venous sinuses, infections, etc., d) association of hereditary or congenital weakness with conditions that increased influx of liquids toward the brain; e) violent affects of nervous type such as severe pain; f) retention of biological fluids (urine, menstrual blood, lochia, semen); g) vapors and miasmas ascending to the brain; h) diseases such as malaria; i) presence of fever or  infections; j) other situations such as mood alterations and lack of sleep.

The remote causes were situations that make the body susceptible to epilepsy, but themselves are insufficient to produce it, such as abuse of unnatural things, the character, the natural disposition, the origin of the person, deprivation of sleep, and other conditions that could produce acute or chronic diseased that finally result in epilepsy. In this case, de Horta indicated that convulsions could also result from the toxic effects induced by herbs, animals or minerals applied for magic purposes. The duration of the epilepsy induced by remote causes, the most difficult to treat, can be short or long continuous or periodical, frequent or seldom. The periodicity of the convulsions was associated with events such as the Moon stations, weather situation, mood changes, exhaustive meditation or ingestion of alcoholic substances.

The causes of epilepsy were also classified as natural, “sobrenatual” and “transnatural”, the later two associated with demoniac sources. Pedro de Horta extensively emphasized the role of the physician to investigate and treat the natural causes of epilepsy before to think about “sobrenatural” and “transnatural” causes. He described the signs and symptoms associated with the aura, the ictal and postictal periods. However, he rejected that the ability to talk or understand an unknown language by the patient during the postictal period could be associated with epilepsy of natural causes.

About the therapy of the epilepsy, de Horta used the term “antiepileptic” and he suggested treatments that should be applied during the attack (stimulation of the body, especially the feet, focused to recover the conscience of the person and reduced the attack) and during the postictal and interictal intervals. Depending on the cause of epilepsy, he recommended sedatives, distillation of fragrant flowers, bloodlettings, purgatives, emetic agents, anodynes, narcotics, antihysterical agents, caustic substances, diuretics, opiates, diuretics, etc. He put attention into prevent subsequent convulsions trying to restore the normal functions.

Although de Horta established that epilepsy and convulsions are difficult to be treated, especially in persons with high susceptibility to suffer them, their cure is not impossible. He described different prognosis of epilepsy, depending on the cause. At this point, he established that the epilepsy is incurable when is associated with hereditary predisposition or brain damage induced by tumors or venous malformations. In contrast, the epilepsy could be medically treated when appears before or after the puberty. Interestingly, he indicated that infants are more susceptible to present convulsions. de Horta established that the prognosis is poor if the epilepsy induces blindness, reduced memory or stubbornness, and decreased cerebral functions could be induced if the patient with epilepsy becomes old.

In the last part of his book, de Horta extensively described the treatment by exorcisms of the epilepsy induced by “transnatural” causes. He indicated that this type of epilepsy is normally resistant to medications. In addition, he indicated that the antiepileptic drugs, such as narcotics and opiates, may induce secondary undesired effects in patients with this type of epilepsy, and eventually they die as consequence of the convulsions. 

De Horta described the personality of epileptic patients in which the mood alterations facilitate the seizures. He also distinguished between the true epileptic seizures from nonepileptic seizures (pseudoseizures), the latter attributed to demonic forces. Indeed, de Horta suggested that the persons dedicated to spiritual exercises, such as nuns, are more susceptible to present epileptic attacks induced by the devil and that the application of exorcisms is the best strategy for their treatment. At this point, he emphasized the necessity to discover and treat the possible natural causes of epilepsy by the physician, before to call the confessor for treating the moral causes.

He established that the “pseudoseizures” are associated with mental disorders (melancholy, hysteria, maniac alterations) or with some type of personalities (compulsive or shy). Although he put emphasis on the evaluation these disorders in order to avoid erroneous diagnosis, he indicated that some mental alterations (hysteria, maniac disorder, melancholy) could be associated with epilepsy.

It is clear that the nuns of the religious order of the Hieronymites underwent “epilepsy” as consequence of collective hysteria because they were suddenly cured one day after they pried to the Virgen de Guadalupe. Calva-Rodirguez (2004) indicated that this was a common situation in places where the people stayed uncommunicated and during long periods of starvation, such as Mexican convents during the 18th century. However, this incident resulted in the first manuscript about epilepsy written in the New World. In this book it is possible to find out very interesting descriptions, that reveal the scientific attitude of the author to explain the epilepsy according with the following aspects: a) the role of the physician to treat and prevent further seizures; b) a clear classification of the seizures; c) the identification of natural causes of epilepsy; d) the treatment of seizures using traditional medicine and drugs such as narcotics and opiates; e) the prognosis of epilepsy; f) the association of epilepsy with mental disorders; and g) the identification of pseudoseizures. Definitely, the treatments suggested by de Horta are in contrast with the rough actions suggested by priest at that time in other countries, such as processes and burning the people suffering convulsions.

The deficiency of Galenic concepts throughout the Medical-Moral Account supports the use of new medical concepts by Pedro de Horta.  Although the medicine in the New Spain during the XVIII century was influenced by superstitions and magic ideas, there was a group of physicians that introduce new ideas about physiology, anatomy, surgery and pathology as well as the use of instruments such as the microscope and thermometer. Important schools for physicians were founded, such as the “Escuela Real de Cirugía” in 1768. Interestingly, the medical literature was extensive at that time. This situation, in agreement with the advance of the science in different fields in New Spain (astronomy, mineralogy, metallurgy, zoology, botany) could explain the advanced concepts used by de Horta to explain the epilepsy.

Figure 3. Page in which Pedro de Horta dedicated his book to theMexican Virgin of Guadalupe.

Although it is clear the influence of the Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of epilepsy, de Horta also claimed for non natural or “moral” causes of epilepsy with the purpose to explain the pharmacoresistant epilepsy and pseudoseizures that should be treated by the confessors applying exorcisms. It is possible that this last situation helped the favorable reception of the book by the catholic authorities.

At present, a copy of Pedro de Horta´s book is located in the “Palafoxiana” library located at downtown of Puebla, a beautiful building that contains several ancient books written by scientists from the old Mexico.

References
Calva-Rodríguez, C. Reseña Histórica del Informe Médico Moral de la Penosísima y Rigurosa Enfermedad de la Epilepsia “1754”. Puebla: Secretaría de Salud, 2004.

García-Albea, E. El Informe Médico-Moral de la penosissima y rigurosa enfermedad de la epilepsia (1763), del hispano Pedro de Horta, el primer tratado americano sobre la epilepsia. Rev. Neurol. 26: 1061-1063, 1998.

Soria, E.D., Fine E.J. The Medical-Moral Account on Epilepsy by Pedro de Horta: a Historical Review. Epilepsia 36: 736-739, 1995.

Autor: Luisa Rocha M.D., Ph.D. Depto. Farmacobiología. Sede Sur del Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados. México, D.F. lrocha@cinvestav.mx

 

Online Bibliography Launched on ILAE Website

The International League Against Epilepsy has launched an online repository of publications written on and relating to the subject of epilepsy. This online database was taken from the works of Yukio Fukuyama, M.D., Ph.D. of Tokyo, Japan. Dr. Fukuyama is the Emeritus Professor of Pediatrics at the Tokyo Women’s Medical University and is the Director of the Child Neurology Institute, also in Tokyo.

Dr. Fukuyama has continued to collect information regarding published books and monographs. Now in its 8th edition, the collection of books and monographs has continued to grow at a rapid pace. The 7th edition was printed in 1998 and at that time, contained 1,349 titles.

To access Dr. Fukuyama’s Bibliography, visit http://www.ilae.org/Visitors/Centre/bibliography/index.cfm

 

ILAE Website Introduces New-Look International AED Database

The ILAE has introduced an updated and revamped International AED Database, which is available on the ILAE Website. The AED Database affords the opportunity to either search or browse by brand or generic name, country or even company name.

To access the database, visit www.ilae.org/Visitors/Centre/AEDs/index.cfm

The data was collected by Robert Fisher, M.D., Ph.D.. Dr. Fisher is a Maslah Saul, M.D. Professor of Neurology and Director of the Stanford Comprehensive Epilepsy Center in California, USA. This database is considered an ongoing project and every attempt will be made to ensure that the data is current and correct. To further the progress of the database, please report any inaccuracies, additions or omissions to Robert Fisher, M.D., Ph.D. at rfisher@stanford.edu.

 

The Cover Design of Epilepsia
Epilepsia started publication in 1909 and the early history of the publication was the subject of an article in the January 2007 issue of the journal (2007: 48 (1): 1-14). This 2007 issue also exhibits a new cover design and for this reason Epigraph features an article on the development of Epilepsia cover designs, which has evolved over the years. In the age of relentless ‘brand identity’ this is a salutary lesson and design (like governments) do change and should always change!

The first series of Epilepsia (1909-1915) was published by a consortium of seven publishers, with the first volume produced by Scheltema and Holkema in Amsterdam and volumes 2-5 by Johann Ambrosius Barth in Leipzig, both of course major centres of topography and printing.

Figure 1 is the Dutch cover and Figure 2 the German one. I say ‘cover’ here but in fact it is possible these illustrations are of the frontispieces of the Journal and not their covers. I have managed to find only bound copies of the first editions of Epilepsia, and it is possible the covers were removed. A plea to Epigraph readers last year for an unbound copy of the first edition of the Journal yielded no response!

I personally particularly like the Leipzig design and its composition. The design has a scholarly and serious look and is clearly within the German tradition of book design; old fashioned but with a rather arts-and-craft typeface, echoes of which remain on the Epilepsia masthead to this day.

On the cover are listed the patrons and the publishing committee – reflecting a sense of self-importance common in the Edwardian age. The cover was appropriate to the age of the long and leisurely afternoon and of certainty and imperial vanity which the first war was soon to change.

The second series (1937-1950) was initially published by Levin and Munksgaard in Copenhagen. The design was distinctly modern, reflecting a Bauhaus influence, and in my opinion is exceptionally neat and well-composed (Figure 3). The second and subsequent volumes were published in the United States, initially by the Graphic Press in Newton, Massachussets and subsequently by George Banta Publishing Company in Menasha, Wisconsin. I would be interested to know what the typeface used is derived from (if readers have any idea, please write!) although perhaps it is a Tschihold face, which would continue the Leipzig connection. The background colour of the cover changed in each volume but otherwise the cover changed only in minor details over this period. The design is certainly not self-important, but the editors and assistant editors are still listed, although now in small print and drowned in a sea of blankness.
The third series of Epilepsia (1952-1955; Figure 4) kept most of the same elements of design as the second series, including the excellent sans serif typeface and the use of different background colours ever year, but the overall effect is somewhat bland, and without the elegance of the second series design.
The fourth series of Epilepsia (1959-present) was published initially by Elsevier. The first cover (fig 5) was a severe, serious and rather funereal design. Could this be taken to reflect the personality of Francis Walshe the then-editor, whose stiff formality frightened many of his contemporaries?
When publishing switched to Raven Press in 1974, a much lighter and perhaps more attractive graphic was chosen (Figure 6). This was still an antique design, with a faux-XVIIth century figure hanging his scalp on a tree and exposing his brain for all to see an alarming action but in the era of Penfield, perhaps not inappropriate. I am not sure where the engraving is taken from (and would welcome enlightenment from our scholarly readership).
In 1977, without a change in publisher and for no known reason, the cover changed again – this time to the more basic and to my eye rather tedious design, which endured in one form or another until 2006 (Figure 7).
In 1985 the page size grew and the font size decreased, and in 1995 the contents appeared on the outside cover (Figure 8). Publishing moved to Raven then, reflecting the appetite of global capitalism, to Lippincott-Raven, then Lippincott, then Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins, and then Blackwell and imminently to Wiley-Blackwell, but the cover design remained that based on the 1977 model.
In 2005, technology had improved to the extent that it became possible to reproduce illustrations from Journal articles on the cover (Figure 9) and for the cover illustration to change with each volume.

In 2007, with Adobe Photoshop® available in the editors' offices, a new cover design has been introduced, with the a cover illustration created as a collage of images from the interior articles, a collage of previous covers (Figure 10).

New ideas for cover design from ILAE members are always welcomed by the Editors of Epilepsia.

Simon Shorvon

 

 

 

Eurepa

As part of the educational agenda of the International League against Epilepsy (ILAE) in Europe, and on initiative of the three Scandinavian Chapters of the ILAE, a new series of epilepsy summer schools under the auspices of the European Epilepsy Academy (Eurepa) will be launched in 2007 and is expected to take place in turn in the 10 countries with ILAE chapters bordering the Baltic Sea.

At the BSSSE, an international group of up to 40 post-graduates will during 4 days in a retreat setting meet and interact with a group of senior epileptologists who will give update lectures on selected, clinical relevant topics in epilepsy. They will also be available as tutors during the programme and for in-depth discussions of all aspects of epilepsy.

The target group are junior medical doctors up to the age of 40 who regularly care for patients with epilepsy, consider subspecialization in epileptology, or have taken their first steps towards a career as epileptologists. The BSSSE addresses doctors primarily from the Baltic Sea region, but applicants from other countries may also be accepted in case there are still places available.

There will be tutorials in small groups comprising video discussions and case-oriented learning. In addition to these and the lectures, and in order to stimulate discussion with tutors and peers, the participants are expected to present own research or thought-stimulating cases they have met. It is hoped that, beyond educational purposes, the encounter of inter-regional groups of junior and senior epileptologists at the BSSSE will generate sustainable clinical and research cooperation around the Baltic Sea.

The 1st BSSSE will be held in Lithuania on August 19 – 23, 2007. Course Directors are Prof. Peter Wolf (Copenhagen/Dianalund), President of the ILAE and Chair of Eurepa, and Assoc. Prof. Milda Endziniene (Kaunas), President of the Lithuanian Chapter of the ILAE. The Course Secretary is Dr. Ruta Mameniskiene (Vilnius).

 For further information, please consult the Eurepa WebSite (www.epilepsy-academy.org/activities ) or contact your national ILAE chapter or Dr. Mameniskiene at ruta.mameniskiene@yahoo.com

North American Congress

North American Regional Epilepsy CongressThe 1st North American Regional Epilepsy Congress took place this past December in San Diego, California USA. This was the first region meeting held in North American Region and was put on the American Epilepsy Society, Canadian League Against Epilepsy and the Jamaican Chapter of ILAE.

The event drew attendees from around the world and provided lots of sessions to provide education and to encourage discussion among attendees. The event was also an opportunity for the League to promote the global agenda.

On Sunday, December 3, there was a session geared toward the North American Region entitled Epilepsy in the North American Region: Challenges and Opportunities. The session discussed to opportunities for regional collaboration in epilepsy care and education. The event, chaired by Sam Wiebe, included speakers Amza Ali, Martin Brodie, Lionel Carmant, John Pellock and Peter Wolf. The speakers discussed the perspectives from individual countries, outlining deficiencies in care and education and presenting prospects for involvement in various activities of the commission.

On Sunday evening, there was a reception for the past presidents of the American Epilepsy Society because although this was the 1st North American Regional Epilepsy Congress, it was still the 60th time the American Epilepsy Society had held its annual meeting.

There are photos from the Congress and also there will soon be some educational sessions which are free to view. Visit http://www.aesnet.org/Visitors/AnnualMeeting/index.cfm for more information.

 

Episcope

D. Denny-Brown: The electro-encephalogram in epilepsy. A review.
Epilepsia, New York, 1938, 1: 124-127,

Portrait of Denny-Brown from Queen Square collection

The featured article in this issue of Episcope is a review of the EEG in epilepsy by Derek Denny-Brown.  Denny-Brown was born in New Zealand, moved to Oxford to work with Charles Sherrington and in 1928 took up his medical practice at the National Hospital Queen Square, where he worked until 1941. Here he worked with a series of the world’s leading neurologists, including Francis Walshe future editor of Epilepsia. Gordon Holmes and Charles Symonds. With the advent of war, he took up the Chair in Neurology at Harvard. His classic book – the Reflex Activity of the Spinal Cord – was published by Oxford in 1932.  In 1946 he was appointed to the James Jackson Putnam Professor of Neurology at Harvard, which he held for 19 years. His research library remains, featuring particularly fascinating films of his lesioning experiments. He trained a whole generation of academic neurologists and was undoubtedly the most important figure in the field of his generation. He seems to have published one paper in Epilepsia, which was this review. It is a short review, the main interest of which is the light it throws on the contemporary position of EEG.

Electroencephalography had only just been introduced, and two years earlier, Gibbs, Lennox and Gibbs had published their famous report on the EEG during petit mal attacks. The EEG provided, in this paper, a physiological method of measuring epilepsy objectively – for the very first time. The excitement was palpable. Denny Brown reviews this paper and the subsequent papers from Gibbs and Gibbs, Lennox, Golla, and Grey Walter.  Denny-Brown, presciently, recognised the importance of interictal abnormalities as indicating an epileptic liability. As he concluded ‘The extension of further studies [of EEG in epilepsy] become of the greatest importance to all interested in epilepsy. From a distance of nearly 70 years, this prediction seems mundane, but at the time was visionary. EEG made great advances in Boston in the years after 1936 and Denny-Brown was on the scene at the time, and perhaps it is surprising that he did not focus his own research in this area. Denny-Brown published over 300 papers in the neurological literature, but only three were devoted to epilepsy. The application of such as a formidable intellect might have advanced epilepsy enormously.

An amusing "genealogy" of Denny-Brown from Neurotree. Click here to visit the Neurotree
Morris-Coole Prize

ILAE awards a new annual prize of 10,000 euros for the best paper published in Epilepsia during the previous calendar year.

The ILAE is proud to announce the establishment of a new prize, the Morris-Coole prize, of 10,000 euros. The prize will be awarded annually for the paper published in Epilepsia during the previous calendar year, which has, in the judges’ opinion, made the most significant advance in knowledge in the field of epilepsy. The winning paper will be a full-length original article (not a review etc), and should not have been the subject of any earlier prize or award.  The paper can report either basic or clinical findings, and papers in any research field and from any region will be eligible.

The judging panel will be comprised of the President of the ILAE and the two Editors-in-Chief of Epilepsia. The panel will consider a short-list of papers prepared by the Associate Editors of Epilepsia. The prize will be awarded during the opening ceremony of the International or regional ILAE conference. The winning researchers will also be invited to present their findings at the Morris-Coole lecture at the conference.

The 2006 award will be announced at the 27th International Epilepsy Congress in July 2007.

The prize was established through the generosity of Mr Christopher Morris-Coole and his wife Sandra, with the intention of stimulating epilepsy research and rewarding young researchers in particular to motivate and provide an incentive to excellence.

 

Most Recent Topics in the Discussion Groups
  • 35 and first seizure
  • Chanellopathy in epilepsy
  • Rasmussen syndrome or not?
  • Photosensitive epilepsy
  • EPILEPSY IS NOT ONCE ILLNESS !

http://www.ilae.org/Visitors/Centre/discussion.cfm

27th International Epilepsy Congress

The 27th International Epilepsy Congress is fast approaching! Set to take place on July 8-12, 2007 in Singapore, the Congress will provide a vast array of educational sessions and networking opportunities.

The scientific and educational programs will cover over 40 cutting edge topics and provide clinical updates essential for continuing professional development of clinicians. The program will also be broad enough for clinicians who are non-epileptologists and allied health professionals involved in epilepsy care to attend.

The Joint Executive Committees of ILAE and IBE have selected seven main topics in the scientific program, which were based on recommendations received from ILAE and IBE chapters around the world.

The sessions will focus on the following topics:

Issues in Developing Countries
Acquisition and usage of new drugs, surgery, research, aetiologies, complementary therapies, establishment of national epilepsy centres, national programmes for capacity building and training, and other issues unique to the developing world will be discussed.
Nadir E. Bharucha, India

Treatment of Epilepsy
This topic will focus on issues related to drug and surgical treatments such as adequate therapeutic trials and medication failure for the purpose of epilepsy surgery, indication for surgery in nonmedically refractory patients, when and how to withdraw medications after successful surgery, what to do next if surgery fails.
Michael Baulac, France

Neuropsychological and Psychiatric Aspects
Neuropsychological and psychiatric dysfunctions are co-morbidities closely related to seizures/epilepsy, underlying pathology and/or treatment. Prevention, early detection and optimal treatment of these co-morbidities will be discussed.
Michael Saling, Australia

Men and Women with Epilepsy Throughout Life
Gender issues in different stages of life will be highlighted in this main topic. In addition, the age and sex-related clinical challenges, medico-legal and psychosocial issues will also be emphasized.
Johan Falk Pedersen, Norway

Stigma and Quality of Life
De-stigmatizing epilepsy is one of the prerequisites to improving the quality of life of people affected by epilepsy. In this section, physicians and social workers will share their experiences on how to achieve this common goal.
Carlos Acevedo, Chile

Epileptogenesis in Relation to Genetic Predisposition in Abnormal Brains
Transnational research data will be presented with a view to develop novel strategies for the prevention and treatment of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy and other types of epilepsy.
Anna Maria Vezzani, Italy

Epidemiology and Prognosis
Amongst the topics discussed, will be permanent remission, predictors for remission and refractoriness, and lessons learnt from untreated patients.
Allen Hauser, USA

Registration is now open at www.epilepsysingapore2007.org.

1st London Colloquium on Status Epilepticus

London, England
12 - 14 April 2007

 

www.conference2k.com/statusconf.asp

Faculty and Program (.doc)

Registration is invited for this conference, to be held in London on April 12-14 2007.  Attendance is open to any clinician or scientist. Details of the conference and registration are available on www.conference2k.com/statusconf.asp .

The colloquium will be a landmark meeting in the field of status epilepticus, following in direct lineage the Marseilles Colloquium held in 1962, and the two Santa Monica meetings on this topic held in 1980 and 1997. The colloquium is the first of two planned meetings, the second of which will be held in Innsbruck in 2009.

The purpose of the conference is:

  • To summarise current knowledge in key clinical and basic science areas
  • To define optimal clinical practice
  • To debate controversial issues
  • To point to future clinical and scientific research areas

The faculty members are major clinical and scientific figures in the field of status epilepticus from around the world, and a global perspective is being taken.

The programme is divided into three sections:

  • Molecular nature of status epilepticus
  • Clinical aspects of status epilepticus
  • Outcomes of status epilepticus

Poster presentations are invited from any registrant (details and application forms are available on www.conference2k.com/statusconf.asp. Applications can be submitted on any clinical or scientific subject in the field of status epilepticus. The closing date for submission is December 31st 2006.

Registration is now open and is restricted to 250 persons, so please register quickly to avoid disappointment. In addition an attractive social programme is offered.

The conference is being held under the patronage of the ILAE Commission on European Affairs, the ILAE Commission on Therapeutic Strategies, the British and Austrian national ILAE chapters, University College London (Institutes of Neurology and Child Health) and the Medical University Innsbruck.

This meeting is supported by the ILAE and by an educational grant from UCB.

 

6th International Course on Epilepsy

6th International Course on Epilepsy: Clinical and Therapeutic Approaches to Childhood Epilepsy
San Servolo, Venice, Italy
23 July - 3 August, 2007
www.epilepsy-academy.org

Announcement and Application

IX Workshop on Neurobiology of Epilepsy (WONOEP 2007)


IX Workshop on Neurobiology of Epilepsy (WONOEP 2007)
Sheraton Langkawi Resort, Teluk Nibong, Langkawi Island, Malaysia
3 - 6 July 2007

http://www.wonoep2007.univ-mrs.fr/
First Announcement

8th European Congress on Epileptology


8th European Congress on Epileptology
Berlin, Germany
21 - 25 September 2008

Other Meetings

International Symposium on Biology of Seizure Susceptibility (ISBSS)
(The 10th Annual Meeting of Infantile Seizure Society)
7-8 April, 2007
www.iss-jpn.info

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